Log-off terminal services session remotely

There are times when you want to quickly log-off a number of terminal services sessions without having to log on to the server itself, perhaps because of the following error:

The terminal server has exceeded the maximum number of allowed connections.

Microsoft provide two useful command-line tools to view and terminate sessions, qwinsta (Query WINdoes STAtion) and rwinsta (Reset WINdows STAtion).
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Faster than Gigabit on a budget

For some time now Gigabit has been the de-facto speed for networking equipment. The days of vendors getting away with selling Gigabit at premium is mostly gone. The only real exception to that seems to be Cisco, who inside on providing Fast Ethernet (100Mb) ports on many of their devices and charging a premium for Gigabit.

Ten Gigabit is becoming more widely available in enterprise environments, but comes at a cost that is out of reach of many home labs and those on a tight budget. Depending on what you need to achieve there are low-cost options for getting your feet wet with 10Gb or faster.

Those on a tight budget are likely to consider LACP to aggregate multiple GbE connections in order to provide more available bandwidth. Unfortunately this isn’t always suitable, especially so if you need a single connection to consume much of the bandwidth. Thankfully assuming you only need to connect two hosts together there is a better way.

Continue reading Faster than Gigabit on a budget

Configure Cisco IOS DHCP to use vendor class IDs

The IOS DHCP server can be configured to provide different address information to clients based on information they provide via DHCP option 60.

DHCP Option 60 is the “vendor class identifier option” that allows the DHCP client to identify its type so that custom configuration can be applied.

Configuring the DHCP Client

For custom address configuration to be applied the client must specify option 60. This is configured with the “ip dhcp client class-id XXX” command, where XXX is an ASCII label to use. For example:

interface Vlan10
  description ** Corporate LAN - Management Address **
  ip dhcp client class-id CUSTOM_CLASS
  ip address dhcp
  end

Configuring the DHCP Server

To configure the IOS DHCP server you must specify a default class and then a class that will match against DHCP option 60. When matching against option 60 you must convert the ASCII string the client sends (e.g. “CUSTOM_CLASS”) to hexadecimal.

ip dhcp class DEFAULT
  remark IP addresses for devices not providing a class-id
!
ip dhcp class CUSTOM_CLASS
  remark IP addresses for devices providing "CUSTOM_CLASS"
  option 60 hex 435553544f4d5f434c415353

With the matching setup the DHCP pool configuration can be split into the custom class and a default:

ip dhcp pool LAN
  network 192.168.0.0 255.255.255.0
  default-router 192.168.0.254
  class CUSTOM_CLASS
    address range 192.168.0.210 192.168.0.220
  class DEFAULT
    address range 192.168.0.0 192.168.0.200

If this doesn’t work the following debug commands may be helpful in identifying the cause of the problem:

debug ip dhcp server class
debug ip dhcp server packet detail